NOMANDSLAND WAS FOUND BY ADAM KOK III AND LATER CALLED KOKSTAD,THE AREA WAS THEN CALLED GRIQUALAND EAST.
The largest region in the Transkei, extending from the upper reaches of the Umtata River in the south-west to the Umzimkulu River in the east, with the Drakensberg Range forming the border in the north. It embraces the following towns or villages and districts: Kokstad (principal town), Franklin,Umzimkulu,Cedarville, Matatiele.Mount Fletcher,Tsolo,Qumbu,Mount Frere and Mount Ayliff.The region was formerly known as No Man's Land after the paramount chief of the Pondo had ceded it to the British goverment in 1844 and gradually evacuated it.In 1861 the governor of the Cape Colony offered it to the Griquas as a settlement area.
WATCH THIS SPACE ?
WHY CAPTAIN BLYTH LIE UNDER OATH ?
1819. conneeted with the arrest of the petitioners were fully set
¦ " ' as! iorth in the following statement sworn to by Captain Blyth,
;May is! at Inlelambi, Transkei, on the Ith April, 1879 : —
'"'"Koklnd™ Mathbw Smith Blyth, late Chief Magistrate of East Griquaknd, makes
^ Baul"' oath and say :-
A few months hefore the rebellion in East Griqualand, Lndovick Kok
came into the district from the Diamond Fields ; he was frequently drunk,
and taunted the other Grriquas at having handed the country so easily to
the Grovernment. At this time he used to gather about the most idle and
worthless of the Griquas, and from this time a spirit of disaffection spread
amongst the Griquas.
A short time after this Mrs. Kok, Adam Muis, and Lndovick Kok went
across the Umzinbubu river into the Matabiel district, ostensibly to beg
corn, but really to gain influence with, and support from, the Basutos.
There were frequent meetings amongst the Griquas, and Pondo messengers
came to Kokstadt. Matters continued in an unsettled state, and I called
the Griquas together more than once, and asked them what complaint they
had asainst the Government, and I warned them against breaking the law
and bringing trouble on themselves and their country.
A sliort time after this, viz., on the 21st of February, 1878, there was a
disturbance in the street at Kokstadt ; it was at once reported to me, and
as 1 feared that any hasty or injudicious act on the part of the European
constable and native police might lead to serious trouble, owing to the ill-
feeling that prevailed, I went down at once to the scene of the disturbance,
accompanied by Mr. Hawthorn, my chief clerk. We found a considerable
crowd, and Lndovick Kok and a number of G-riquas were drunk, threaten-
ing to shoot Mr. Pringle, and pull his store down. I went up to Ludovick
Kok and took him away to the office which was near ; the other Griquas
followed in a threatening manner, calling out that Ludovick Kok should
not go to the gaol. Adam Muis did all in his power to excite the crowd
¦and release his brother. 1 bound Ludovick Kok and Adam Muis to appear
on the following Monday and answer to the charge of makiug a disturbance.
This happened on a I'hursday : on the following Sunday, the 24th February,
Adam Muis left for Pondoland : the case came on for hearing on the
Monday, and after a patient investigation, lasting two days, in which I
¦was assisted by Mr. Strachan, the magistrate of the Umzinbubu, Ludovick
Kok and his brother, Tommy Kok, were sentenced to six months' imprison-
ment. A jury of the principal Griquas, Jan Jood, Neoghaner Mllvechts,
were assembled by me to hear the case, and they fully agreed in the sen-
tence and guilt of the prisoners. Tommy Kok had threatened some
Europeans and a coloured woman named Mrs. Beadel, saying that the
country was theirs, and they would drive the Q-overnment away, and do
as they liked.
' Adam Muis was at tliis time in Pondoland, where he had been joined by
several disaffected Griquas, and were staying at Umhlangaza's kraal, and
receiving every support Irom the Pondos.
Seeing matters were likely to become serious, and that probably the
Griquas would take up arms, I urged the Secretary of Native Affairs to
send me a reinforcement of one hnndrod men: this was not done: Adam
Muis was strengthened daily by Griqnas joining him, and messengers were isi9.
continually being sent into Grriqualand to urge the other Grriquas to join „ ' %\
him. Adam Muis also wrote a letter to the Griqna Field-comet, Lukas ^ar. is.
Van der Westhiiisen, to induce him to join them, saying that the Pondos ¦ — ¦_ '
would assist them, also asking for powder, caps, &c. This letter was "'^Koklnd"'
handed to me. I had to visit the Matabiel district, and on my return on K^haniel
the evening of the 7th April I found matters were more serious ; I placed
an extra guard on the gaol, and called a meeting of the Grriquas on the
Monday, when I told them the exact state of matters, and gravely warned
them and told them their duty was to support the Government. I urged
them that if they had any complaint against the Government, or myself,
they were to make it, and I promised that the Government would hold a
searching inquiry and grant redress ; they had no complaints. As Adam
Muis was assembling a body of armed Griquas at the Ingeli, on the borders
of East Griqualand and Pondoland, about six miles from Kokstadt, on
the Tuesday I sent an express to Messr.s. Liefeldt and Strachan, the Magis-
trates of the Matabiel and Umzinbubu districts, and sent out the Field-
cornets to warn the people not to be led away, but to remain loyal, as it
was considered probable that the Griquas would make an attack on the
town. I took every precaution, called out the European volunteers, about
forty in number, and had outlying picquets and the drifts to the town
guarded day and night, and from the Tuesday until the following Monday
every European was on continuous duty day and night, stores were closed,
&c. ; only very few of the Griquas rendered any assistance. On the Thurs-
day the 11th April, the Griquas under Adam Muis and Smith Pommer
and a number of Pondos swept off a number of cattle and sheep on a farm
about three miles from Kokstadt, and made the owner of the farm, a Mr.
Acutt, and his white servants, prisoners, and took his gun and all his
property away. On this day I sent out several of the principal Griquas
together with my clerk, who also was a coloured man, to Adam Muis, to
urge them to lay down their arms and listen to reason, and asking them
what they wanted ; they replied insolently that they would do as they liked,
and that they would sleep with some of the white women in the town, and
tlie message to me was that they would cut my wife and children to pieces,
and hang the strips on the bushes. As there was no hope of a peaceful
settlement of this tiouble, and as the Griquas were being rapidly reinforced,
and matters were more grave and serious, I deemed it advisable to order all
Europeans and their families into the fort, and they went in on the Friday.
On that day I was told by Jan Jood and others that the rebels intended
attacking the town that night. All the Griqua women, old people, and
children, slept in the large church that night, so that they evidently be-
lieved in the attack ; every precaution was taken to prevent a surprise. At
this time the rebels were in force about two miles from Kokstadt, and up
to this time I had received no reinforcements, but on Saturday morning
Mr. Liefeldt arrived with about 300 Fingoes and Basutos, and on Saturday
afternoon Mr. Strachan came with some Baocas, and early on Sunday Mr.
Stafford came with more Baccas, numbering more than 100 in number.
On the Saturday the Griqua rebels and Pondos marched into the Old Laager,
situated about two miles from Kokstadt and beyond it ; all Europeans then
went into the fort. On the afternoou of this day I went out with a small
W!9. force to reconnoitre the position of-tlie enemy, ftnd they turned out in
!, ' 2a! strength in skirmishing order well armed and mounted. I took some of
m'"'' }t' ^^'^ principal Griquas who had not joined the rebels, and I urged them to
— ; ' persuade their friends the rebels to lay-down their arms, and messages were
^Kokand™ ^^^° ^^"' ^'^ ¦'^'''** Kuk, who was with the rebels, to warn her to leave the
Nathaniel rebels and come into Kokstadt. She said she was ill. The rebels paid no
Calie. . , .
attention to these messages, but were fortifying their position, issuing out
ammunition. On Saturday also some of the Basutos opened up communi-
cation with Mrs. Kok and wavered much. Early on the Sunday I again
sent to Mrs. Kok to come out from the Griquas, but without avail; I
pointed out the gravity of their position. About noon on the Tuesday the
14th April the rebels were reinforced by a further party of armed Pondos,
and as they were gaining strength hourly, and some of our natives could
not be depended upon, I determined to attack the rebels in their position.
After making the best disposition of the force in my power I marched on
the Old Laager, and halted about a mile from it, and again sent to Mrs.
Kok and the rebels to urge them to submit and lay down their arms, and
sent a wagon in to bring Mrs. Kok out of the rebel camp ; this wagon was
sent back, and after fruitless endeavours I sent to say that I gave them
half-an-hour, at the expiration of that time I would advance, and their
blood would be on their own heads. I then advanced, as I received no
reply ; I had about twenty-five men of the C. M. Rifles under Captain
O'Connor in the centre, Basutos in two columns on centre and left under
Mr. M. Liefeldt and Mr. P. Liefeldt, and on right one hundred Baccas under
Mr. Stafford, and the Hlangwani tribe, also some volunteers, but left the
greater part of the Europeans in camp to guard the women and children
and the magazine,
The attack was successful : the rebels opened up a sharp fire, but were
soon outflanked, a number ran away, about fifteen were killed, Adam Muis
Ohvera, and on our side one European volunteer ; a large number of cattle
was taken. Just as the firing commenced, a party of natives came out
from the rebels with a white flag. I went to them and found that they
were ninety-four Pondos under a petty chief named " Josiah," they were
all well armed with guns and assegais and shields, and their rifles were all
loaded. I disarmed (hem at once. We returned to the fort at dusk, and
that evening the sad explosion took place, I was therefore unable to follow
the rebels until Tuesday ; on the evening of this day I sent out three
columns under Messrs. Strachan and Liefeldt and Gamer to attack the rebel
Griquas under Smith Pommer, who were in a strong position on the " Ingeb,"
on the borders of Pondolaud. This expedition was successful, killing Smith
Pommer -and about twenty-five men ; on our side eight Kafirs were killed
and fourteen wounded. A party of twenty-five rebels under " Titus Klein "
went into the Drakensberg Mountains and were followed up by twenty-five
0. M. E. under Capt. O'Connor, and one hundred mounted Basutos ; they
were successful, and the rebels surrendered and were brought into Kokstadt.
The rebellion was then completely finished ; a large number of prisoners
were made, and others were brought in by Kafirs or surrendered themselves.
All these had taken up arms against the Government, with but few
exceptions. I examined the prisoners separately, assisted by Messrs.
Strachan and Liefeldt, and discharged some, and the most guilty were
detamcd ancl, by onler of the Government, sent to Cape Town. I know of 18?9.
no caiiFe why the Griquas rebelled, except as part of the spirit of restless- ^^ ' za'.
ness and disaffection towards the Government that was so prevalent in ^*''- ?*•
Kaffraria at the beginning of 1878 ; rumours had also reached Kokstadt — ;
that the Europeans were defeated by the Kafirs. Pondoland was in an ¦'"xok and"
unsatisfactory state, and the Griquas relied upon support from there ; most N^hanlel
of the Griquas hnd sold their farms, and had nothing to lose by a dis-
turbance. Many Griquas who had not received farms from the commission
of 1875 were recommended by me to the Government for farms ; the
people were treated fairly, justly, and with proper consideration, and no
cause was even assigned by the Griquas themselves why they rebelled.
Jan Jood, the principal Griqua, said they had no cause to rebel. Mrs. Kok
with Adam Muis, Ludovick Kok, and Smith Pommer, were the principal
leaders in the rebellion. Mr. 0. Watermeyer, the head of the Government
survey in Griqualand, was in Kokstadt during the rebellion. I consulted
with him repeatedly on the state of affairs, and he apparently approved of
all that was done. I always looked upon the Griquas as British subjects.
It was clearly laid down that they were to come to East Griqualand as
British subjects ; they always considered that they were so ; the land they
occupied was ceded to the British Government by Paku ; quit-rent taxes
were levied by the Government, and paid by the Griquas ; the members
of the old Raad received a pension from the Government ; the late Captain
Kok received a pension, and after his death his widow ; Field-comets were
appointed and paid by the Government.
I regi'et that I cannot be more precise as to dates, as the papers, journals,
are at Kokstadt, but I conscientiously make the above statement, declaring
the same to be true.
(Signed.) Matt. Blyth.
Postea (May 15),—
THE BRITISH DESTROY THE GRIQUA NATION LEADERSHIP IN GRIQUALAND EAST.
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